Развитие энергетики в странах Закавказья в разрезе выгод ЕАЭС.
Статья И.Е. Матвеева на английском языке
Razvitie-energetiki-v-stranah-Zakavkazya-v-razreze-vigod-EAES. Statya-I.E.- Matveeva-na-angliiskom-yazike
Matveev Igor Evgenievich, Deputy Director of the Russian Market Research Institute (VNIKI), Candidate of Economic Sciences.
Energy development of the South Caucasus countries and Eurasian Economic Union’s benefits.
Keywords. Russian Federation, EAEU, CIS, countries of the South Caucasus, Caucasus, Republic of Armenia, Republic of Azerbaijan, Republic of Georgia, Central Asia, EU, Iran, Turkey, China, SREB, conjugation, energy policy, interests, energy, oil, gas, coal, renewable energy sources, hydroelectric power plants, energy transit, southern energy corridor, cooperation, integration, leadership.
Description / Metadata. The article assesses the current state and prospects of the development of the energy sector of the Republic of Azerbaijan, the Republic of Armenia and the Republic of Georgia in the context of historical experience, factors that influence the international specialization of these states, integration processes which take place within the framework of the EAEU and CIS, policies of the leading Western countries in the region, conjugation of the EAEU and SREB.
The South Caucasus is the important geostrategic center of the continent, which is located at the junction of Europe and Asia. The countries of the region are linked by a complex centuries-old history of bilateral and multilateral relations, interaction with Russia, Turkey, Iran and other states. The specifics of Transcaucasia make it possible to single out the Republic of Armenia, the Republic of Azerbaijan and the Republic of Georgia in a separate group of independent states. This group is a target of the energy policy of the leading Western countries, Russia, other participants of the EAEU and the CIS.
For many decades the Transcaucasian republics took a part of the single national economic complex of the USSR. Their development was carried out within the framework of state plans. These plans were aimed at:
1) harmonizing the output of goods in related industries, as extracting and processing industries, agriculture and transport sectors , taking into account the possibilities for financing and material support,
2) optimizing the regional location of enterprises to eliminate long-range and counter shipping, approximating the capacities to sources of raw materials and areas of consumption of products.
The centralized planning method, on the one hand, was strengthening the sectoral specialization of each of the considered republics, on the other hand, it was strengthening the inter-branch cooperation in the region and the country as a whole.
In the early 90s after the collapse of the multi-level ties system, the new sovereign states have begun to build an energy policy based on the available factors of production, domestic demand, foreign trade preferences taking into account the national, ethnic conflicts.
Currently the economies of the South Caucasus countries stay interdependent. They are compelled to make compromises both in the course of solving their own energy issues and problems, and in implementing the Eurasian-scale projects.
In historical retrospect, the economic component of the regional policy of the modern Russia has remained weak and has not contributed to the rapid restoration of economic ties on a pragmatic basis.
Today there are prerequisites for our country and other EUEA/CIS member states for moving forward to more active actions to "tighten" space on the outer contour, to uphold and advance their energy interests in the Caucasus region and in the world overall.
Let's consider the situation in the energy sector of the South Caucasus countries in order to identify the main directions of the energy policy of Russia and its partners.
There is no hydrocarbons production in the Republic of Armenia. Some experts believe that oil and gas deposits can be located on the territory of the country, the extraction of which will be able to cover the domestic needs.
In 1994, the employees of "US Geological Survey" concluded that 44 million tons of shale oil is concentrated in Aramus region. In 2005, new studies allowed to increase this figure up to 145 million tons (the structures in Ijevan, Shamut and Germanis were explored, which are capable to contain about 17 million tons, in Dilijan - 128 million tons).
In 2007, the Canadian company Vangold Resources Ltd. began to study the oil and gas structures. In 2012, the Ministry of Energy of Armenia and the concern "International Minerals and Mines" (USA) signed a memorandum on research in the sphere of production of shale raw materials.
It should be noted that the development of fossil fuel deposits is associated with the high environmental risks due to the specific geological structure of the territory and problems in the field of logistics.
Currently, the basic energy resources of the Republic of Armenia are the atomic energy and water energy.
The basis of the generation sector are the Armenian Nuclear Power Plant (about 40% of the total production), ten hydroelectric plants which take are part of the Vorotan and Sevan-Hrazdan cascades of HPPs, as well as two thermal power plants "Yerevan TPP" and "Hrazdan TPP".
These facilities are characterized by a high level of depreciation of capacity, so the main task for the country in the near future is modernization and creation of the new power plants.
The SHPP and other RES-stations are complementary, but important sources of generation from the point of view of power supply of individual villages and remote consumers. They has been built in the last decade. These facilities, along with large CHPs, belong to the category of stations with a "high" tariff, it means that they generate more expensive electricity in comparison with nuclear power plants and hydroelectric power stations.
In March 2014, the government decided to continue using the single reactor of the ANPP because of the delay in the construction of a new nuclear power unit. In 2017, Russian and national specialists plan to start maintenance and modernization of the plant in order to extend the period of its operation for 10 years.
The phased replacement of obsolete turbines is carried out at the thermal power plants. The new capacities are more efficient, but the return on investment and the use of natural gas does not allow having a low electricity tariff.
The HPP of the Vorotan cascade is owned by two of the companies in the US and can be reconstructed in the period up to 2040. The HPP of the Sevan-Hrazdan cascade is operating mainly in the irrigation mode. This HPP is controlled by PJSC "RusHydro", which is implementing a comprehensive repair program for the period up to 2020.
The country has plans for the development of the renewable energy sector and energy saving. Currently, the parameters of the hydro potential are under elaboration, an atlas of solar insolation is in the process of compilation, the "point" projects for the construction of wind turbines are in the process of implementation, the energy audits of industrial facilities, commercial buildings and structures are carried out.
Armenia's energy sector is closely connected with the analogous sector of the Russian Federation. The harmonization of the development strategies of energy and related sectors is needed in order to increase the efficiency of the joint work of state and private companies of the EAEU countries.
The Republic of Armenia has possibilities for exporting electricity to neighboring countries. The expansion of generation capacity and networks in the direction of North-South is required in order to ensure foreign supplies. The development of the electricity sector will also improve the efficiency of the parallel operation of the electric power systems of Russia, Armenia, Iran, and Georgia.
The projects on expansion of national electricity export and gas transit may be implemented during conjugation EAEU and SREB.
Today the Republic of Armenia and China have agreed to develop strategies for the coal and gas thermal power stations and trunk power lines construction. The power lines might be installed on the territory of Armenia in the direction to Georgia and Iran. It is assumed that the gas CHP will use Iranian gas and Russian fuel, which is currently supplied to Armenia at preferential prices. Part of the generated electricity can be used in neighboring countries, especially on those infrastructure facilities which provide transit of goods along the southern routes of SREB, for example, the infrastructure facilities of the deepwater port of Anaklia in Georgia.
There is possibility for development of the gas pipeline network, which will ensure transit of fuel along the route Iran-Armenia-Georgia-EU market. In the long term, the Iran-Armenia pipeline for transportation diesel fuel and motor gasolines to Transcaucasia and the EU can be built. These projects are assessed as attractive for the EAEU and China from the economic and geopolitical point of view.
There are priority projects in the energy sector of the Republic of Armenia, the implementation of which will strengthen the integration processes of the EAEU, as well as the integration of the facilitate of the EAEU and SREB:
- "Extension of operation period of the Metsamor NPP” and construction of a new nuclear power unit;
- "Construction of the Meghri HPP" (the work was started in 2012), as well as power plants construction near the city of Lori-Berd and Shnokh;
- "Construction of a power transmission line Armenia-Georgia", "Construction of a power transmission line Armenia-Iran";
- "Expansion of the capacity of the GTS Iran-Armenia";
- development of renewable energy sector, energy efficiency (according to the country's strategic documents, the projects are considered in accordance with the procedure established by law).
Synchronization of the EAEU countries energy policy in the framework of regional problems solving, as well as pairing EAEU-SREB will have a positive impact on Armenia's economy, the integration processes in the EAEU, as well as strengthen economic ties in the region and on the outer contour of the Caucasus.
The main hydrocarbon reserves of the Republic of Azerbaijan are concentrated in the Caspian Sea. Offshore structures are highly prosecuted for oil and gas, therefore in the long term the new large and relatively accessible fields will be opened unlikely.
The main problems of the commodity sector are the depletion of the resource base and the complexity of exploration of the new offshore deposits due to the lack of agreements with third countries on the delineation of the Caspian Sea.
Azerbaijan has the opportunity to use renewable resources. The largest energy potential is concentrated in the sectors of wind and solar energy. The development of renewable energy sector and energy efficiency require large-scale investments and support from the state, which is difficult to realize since the world market conjuncture is weak and energy prices are low.
The economy of the country is based on oil, gas industries and transport sector that provide the export of energy resources. In the recent history of Azerbaijan, the domestic oil production reached its peak level in the first decade of the 21st century. After that there was the stage of "falling" production, since there was a reduction of the reserves of the field Azeri-Cıraq-Gunesli, which is the main resource base of the industry. In the period up to 2030 the volume of extraction of the liquid fuel will likely decrease by 2.5-3 times, which will lead to reduction to a minimum of the export potential of the industry or Azerbaijan's complete refusal to export oil in order to meet the growing domestic demand
Gas production sharply increased in the second half of the 2000s. At the same time the development of the Shah Deniz gas condensate field was at the first phase. This was associated with the implementation of costly measures in order to increase and stabilize recovery volumes.
The main task of the government of Azerbaijan and the consortium "AIOC" is to hold the average annual gas production up to 2019-2020 (the time when the second phase of works in Shah Deniz-2 will be done) and at the level of 8.5-9 billion cubic meters. It is needed in order to ensure exports and the needs of the national economy.
At the beginning of the third decade, with a favorable combination of circumstances, the production of raw materials may peach 34-35 billion cubic meters, and according to optimistic estimates - up to 40 billion cubic meters per year. It is possible that this figure will be fixed at the maximum level for two to three years. After 2025, the decline in production for about 5-10% per year will be seen.
The new export pipelines of the country were laid across the territory of Georgia and Turkey. Separate sections of main pipeline systems are exposed to risks associated with instability of the political situation in the regions of Nagorno-Karabakh, South Ossetia (controls 1.5 km of Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline).
In the period until 2020, the modernization of national gas transmission capacities is planned within the framework of the EU plan for the creation of the Southern Transport Corridor. The works are synchronized with the development of new deposits, according to the second phase of the Shah Deniz-2 project.
In the 1990s, the West offered to Azerbaijan the financial and technological support to international oil and gas corporations and other foreign entities if case if Azerbaijan will harmonies its foreign policy in the economic and other spheres, including the military sphere with interests of West.
With reliance on the United States and its allies, the Republic of Azerbaijan intended to solve several key tasks: to resolve the situation in Nagorno-Karabakh by preventing its separation, consolidate its position in Transcaucasia, enter to the track of sustainable economic development and become more prominent participant in the world oil market. The pro-Western vector of Azerbaijan's policy corresponded to the geopolitical interests and intentions of the leading Western states, which legally, financially and verbally "fueled" the hopes and energy ambitions of the country
In the 2000s, the country moved to a more balanced energy policy for various reasons (due to the tough position of the leading Western countries towards Iran, the strengthening of the influence of non-governmental organizations on the domestic political situation, the depletion of the resource base, etc.).
So, the analysis of the oil and gas sectors development of Azerbaijan shows that the Western states have sought and continue to use the situation in the country and the Caucasus as a whole in order to achieve greater geopolitical goals: deterring Russia, slowing down the integration processes in the EAEU, "strangling" Iran, promoting the interests of world TNCs in international market, counteracting the consolidation of the largest gas-producing countries and expanding payments using national currencies (in energy and other goods trade).
The oil and gas industries of the country are developing on the basis of an extensive method of management. The production growth directly depends on the commissioning of new hydrocarbon deposits. In this regard, even in a favorable world situation, the oil and gas prosperity of the state is limited to several decades.
Actually, the Republic of Azerbaijan conducts a balanced energy policy, based on an adequate assessment of the international situation and its own capabilities in order to avoid ideologizing interstate relations and infringing the national or religious characteristics of partner countries. The activities of the Azerbaijani government are aimed to build pragmatic and friendly relations with all participants of the oil and gas markets as producers and consumers of primary fuel and energy resources, as well as the states which are involved in the transit of energy resources.
Azerbaijan strives to strengthen its positions in the market of the countries of the united Europe, to develop mutually beneficial cooperation with neighboring extractive states as Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Iran, which can support energy exports to the world markets using existing and future capacities.
Country cooperates with the CIS member states, studies the experience of the integration of the EAEU, however, the confrontation in Nagorno-Karabakh still hinders the process of rapprochement with the union. At the same time, the accession of the Republic of Azerbaijan to the EAEU will help mitigate the opposition of the parties in this long-standing conflict.
Azerbaijan aimed to ensure a balance in the international energy policy and to keep working relations with Russia. It led to an increase in external pressure on the government of the country. For example, in the current decade, the leading Western countries pointed to (1) the limited resources of the Caspian shelf and the "unrealistic expectations" of investors of the oil and gas sector (this statements were made on the basis of data on reserves obtained in the 1990s), (2) the complexity of the work of foreign companies in the "authoritarian" regime.
It is possible that further attempts will be made to destabilize the internal situation with the use of a set of measures. In particular, among the countries of Transcaucasia, the Republic of Azerbaijan is an attractive geopolitical target for the terrorist groups, which are suppressed by Russia and the forces of the international coalition in the Middle East.
In the Republic of Georgia, there are no large hydrocarbon reserves, despite the fact that the country is located near regions that have rich fossil fuel’s deposits.
Low-tonnage production of oil and gas (in extremely small volumes) is carried out in mature small deposits and it is characterized by instability of recovery volumes, high cost and poor quality of raw materials. Prospects for the development of the national production sector are still poorly understood.
Due to the volume of its own production of oil, the country could provide raw materials not only for the domestic needs of the chemical industry, but also for the transport sector. However, Georgia lacks large-scale processing of raw materials. The main share of the official market of oil products takes imported raw materials.
The traditional suppliers of gasoline and diesel fuel are Azerbaijan, Romania and Bulgaria, to a lesser extent - Greece and Turkmenistan. In 2016, Russia became the second largest importer (after Azerbaijan), having won price competition with other fuel producers.
The volumes of gas extraction are extremely small. For this energy resource, the dependence of the national economy on imports is nearly 100%.
The Republic of Georgia possesses industrial reserves of stone and brown coals. Their extraction is profitable in individual mines. The use of solid fuels is hampered by the low level of development of the coal infrastructure. Even since the Soviet times the national heat and power engineering and utilities were reoriented to the burning of liquid and gaseous energy resources, which are supplied from neighboring regions. The country's dependence on foreign supplies of coal is at the level of 55%. The coal industry is interested in obtaining fuel gasification technologies that allow to use the low-grade solid fuel and without a significant cost to obtain a wide range of ash and slag waste products.
The EU countries and their geopolitical partners look at Georgia as at important link in transport communications, which lay outside the territory of Russia. The country is part of the strategic "Southern Energy Corridor" and regional routes, which lay mainly from the north to the south. Transit infrastructure includes marine terminals, main gas and oil pipelines, railways, intersystem power lines. The further involvement of Georgia in the international energy supply schemes and the reduction of the country's dependence on the export of primary fuel and energy resources are in the interests of the EU and the US.
Georgia focuses on the development of transport, services and logistics, which are important sectors of the economy in terms of filling the state budget.
Modernization of the national gas transportation system is a priority. The construction of UGS is planned, which can be used not only in order to create commercial gas reserves, but also for participation in various supply chains, for example, in exporting raw materials from Iran through Armenia, as well as in exchange operations that involv Iran, Russia, Turkmenistan, Armenia and other countries.
Georgia supports following international transport projects: "TAP", "TANAP", "WS", "EAOTC", "AGRI". In the course of their implementation, a gas processing plant and an LNG terminal may be established on the territory of the country.
The medium and small hydroelectric power stations (most of which are able to function in a year-round mode) are play the main role in the national electric power industry. The hydro potential is mastered by about 25%, so Georgia has natural capabilities to create 30-40 GW of additional capacity. About ¼ of the total production of electricity falls on thermal power plants.
The Republic of Georgia has outlined plans for the development of decentralized energy system, which will be based on water energy (small and micro HPPs), wind and solar energy, geothermal energy and peat. For the development of this sector, it is expected to attract foreign investment.
The electric power industry of the country mainly provides stable electricity supplies to the domestic market due to its own production and flows from neighboring power systems.
In the medium term, it is planned to increase the capacity of HPPs and trunk transmission lines in order to increase the reliability of energy supply to domestic consumers and increase the export of "clean" energy. The priority areas for electricity supply / transit are Turkey, the countries of the EAEU (Russia and Armenia), and Azerbaijan. In the long term, Georgia intends to consider the possibility of joining the common EU network.
The development of the country's energy economy is supported by international large financial institutions, including: “European Bank of Reconstruction and Development”, “International Finance Corporation”, “Asian Development Bank”, “European Investment Bank”, USA special organizations “USAID” and “Millennium Challenge Corporation", national funds of Georgia -"Partnership Fund", "Georgian Energy Development Fund", "Georgian Co-Investment Fund", etc.
The main vector of the Georgian policy is directed to the European Union, North America and Asia. Among the priority country markets are Germany, Great Britain, France, USA, Canada, China, Japan, Republic of Korea, Israel, Switzerland (11 countries in total).
Georgia and the EU signed an association agreement, which began operating in July 2016. In the future, the country can be included in the EU free trade zone. In October 2016, Georgia became an associate member of the Energy Community, and in 2017, it may become a full member of this organization. This means that in the future the country will further adhere to the EU energy policy.
The policy of Georgia is aimed at further integration into the regional and international energy supply systems and turning the country into a regional leader in the fields of transit and logistics.
Based on the geographic factor and foreign capital, Georgia plans to expand the transit flows in the latitudinal direction, to integrate more deeply into the transport chains leading to the EU. In this regard, the priority tasks are to increase the carrying capacity of roads and railways, pipelines, inter-system power transmission lines and distribution networks, and coastal infrastructure, including by building the deep-water port of Anaklia.
The cooperation between Georgia and China is actively developing. In May 2017 an agreement on establishment of the free trade zone was signed. This agreement will exempt from import duties of more than 90% of export of Georgian products. The corresponding agreement will come into force after ratification by legislative bodies of both countries. Companies from China plan to implement in Georgia the several major projects in the chemical, petrochemical, food, light, construction and production of construction materials and related industries. Chinese «Dongfang Electric Co.» and «China Tianchen Engineering Co.» are considering the establishment of the coal and gas thermal power station
Developing the interstate cooperation, Georgia demonstrates political pragmatism and flexibility, focusing on the principle of "business as usually" in the absence of discrepancies with its foreign policy partners.
During the unfolding of the SREB project the role of Georgia in Transcaucasia can become one of the key. This is facilitated by following factors:
1) a favorable geographical location with an access to the Black Sea coast,
2) the availability of transport infrastructure, the development of which is supported by the world's largest economies and leading international institutions,
3) the implementation of the project of creation the free industrial zone and deepwater port of Anaklia which will be capable to accept vessels of deadweight up to 150 thousand tons,
4) Georgia's involvement in the transit of oil and gas to the EU countries, the electricity network in the direction of Turkey, Russia, Armenia,
5) smoothing relations with Russia and tendency to develop the joint economic projects with the EAEU countries,
6) the development of cooperation with Iran, including in the field of transit "from the Persian Gulf to the Black Sea",
7) the formation of an extensive system of preferential or free trade (with the CIS and EFTA member countries, with Turkey, China, the USA, Canada, Japan, the European Union).
In the framework of the EAEU-SREB interface, Georgia is of interest as a platform which can provide transit of cargoes, in particular, energy carriers in the latitudinal direction within the southern corridor of the SREB.
One of the promising areas of cooperation between the EAEU, China and Georgia is the electric power industry specially the transfer of electricity to long distances, the formation of the "southern belt" of the energy network in the space from Greece and Italy to China and Japan (with the purpose of using longitude effect) using DC transmission technologies.
Deepening cooperation between Georgia and the EAEU countries will allow Russia and Kazakhstan to expand their opportunities to participate in the supply of gas, oil and petroleum products using regional infrastructure.
In the 1990s the Republic of Armenia, the Republic of Azerbaijan and the Republic of Georgia chose various ways of socio-economic development and foreign policy priorities. At the present time, nevertheless, their geopolitical and economic dependence is preserved and the energy dependence is strengthened. Countries are forced to seek opportunities to implement joint projects, take into account the interests of external participants of the energy market.
The situation in Transcaucasia is significantly influenced by the energy policy of the European Union and its partners, which is aimed at securing the extraction and transit of energy carriers in order to diversify the supplies of fossil fuels and reduce dependence on Russia. In the medium term, the EU proposes to expand the capacities of the existing main pipelines and build new transportation systems which form the Southern Transport Corridor. As the suppliers of oil and gas, the European Union considers the countries of the Caspian region and Central Asia. In the longer term, it is possible to create a DC and AC transmission lines for long-distance transmission of electricity in the latitudinal direction.
The Republic of Armenia does not have fossil fuel reserves. The basic energy resources are nuclear and hydropower. The country receives gas, oil and oil products from its partners in the EAEU. Armenia’s electric power industry has export opportunities. The increase of the capacity of the national generating sector and creation of the trunk power lines in the direction of North-South is required in order to export of electricity. The development of the country's network economy also will help to increase the efficiency of the parallel operation of the electric power systems of Russia, Armenia, Iran, and Georgia.
Armenia has a good transit potential which is based on geographical factor. It is possible to organize the transportation of gas from Iran in the direction to international markets through the territory of the country. In specific projects, which are considered by the author in this article, could take a part companies from the countries of the EAEU, China, and other states.
The economy of the Republic of Azerbaijan is experiencing difficulties in conditions of unstable world oil prices. The oil and gas industry develops on the basis of an extensive method of management. The growth in production depends on the commissioning of new fields, but their number is limited. The main problems of the sector are depletion of the resource base and the complexity of studying the new offshore deposits due to the lack of agreements with third countries on the delineation of the Caspian Sea. In case when other things being equal, the period of oil and gas well-being of the state is limited by two nearest decades.
In the 1990s, the vector of the energy policy of the Republic of Azerbaijan was directed mainly to the West. Currently, Azerbaijan strives to pursue a balanced energy policy taking into account the positions of the EAEU countries, Iran, China, to build pragmatic and friendly relations with all participants of the oil and gas markets as producers and consumers of primary fuel and energy resources, countries which involved in the transit of energy resources to the EU along the southern corridor.
Azerbaijan cooperates with the CIS countries, studies the experience of their integration, however, the confrontation in Nagorno-Karabakh continues to restrain the process of rapprochement of the country with the EAEU. At the same time, the accession of the Republic of Azerbaijan to the EAEU will help mitigate its confrontation with Armenia in this long-standing conflict.
It is possible that in the future the external forces will continue to make attempts to destabilize the internal situation in the conditions of "controlled chaos" in the Near and Middle East. Among the countries of Transcaucasia, the Republic of Azerbaijan seems to be the most attractive geopolitical goal for the attack of terrorist organizations which are suppressed by Russia and the forces of the international coalition.
For Russia and other countries of the EAEU the "window of opportunities" for rapprochement with the Republic of Azerbaijan is expanding. This expansion aims at further rooting in regional projects which relate to the integration of the EAEU and SREB as well as creation of the conditions for promotion to the African continent.
The Republic of Georgia is considered by the leading countries of the West as an important unit of the transport systems and routes which lay outside of the territory of Russia. The country supports the creation of the "Southern Energy Corridor" and the routes which pass through the territory of the Eastern European countries.
The Georgian government intends to develop the transport and services spheres at a faster pace. The country expects to expand its participation in interregional energy supply schemes, including operations of export of raw materials from the Middle and Near East regions through the territory of Armenia, exchange transactions involving Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Iran.
At the international level Georgia demonstrates the political pragmatism and flexibility, the desire to adhere to the principles of feasibility and economic benefit.
Involvement of the country in projects related to the implementation of SREB strengthens its role in Transcaucasia. In the framework of the EAEU-SREB interface, Georgia is interesting as a site which may provide transit of goods in the latitudinal direction within the southern route of the SREB.
One of the promising areas of cooperation between the EAEU, China and Georgia is the transfer of electricity to long distances, as well as the formation of the "southern belt" of the energy network in the space from Greece and Italy to China and Japan using DC / AC transmission technology.
In addition, deepening cooperation between Georgia and the EAEU countries will allow Russia and Kazakhstan to expand their opportunities to participate in the supply of gas, oil and oil products using regional infrastructure.
Thus, currently, the conditions for the transition to more active joint actions in the South Caucasus have been formed for the EAEU countries. In the framework of solving national problems and in the course of the EAEU-SREB interface, the coordination and synchronization of the energy policy of the EAEU are required.
In a broader context, today the important goals of Russia and its partners are to balance the interests of the EAEU countries, China, Iran, Turkey, Central Asian and EU countries in the Caucasus, as well as to restart the integration processes in the CIS.